2) Science (from Latin scientia, meaning “knowledge”) is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge in the form of testable explanations andpredictions about the universe.[nb 1] In an older and closely related meaning, “science” also refers to this body of knowledge itself, of the type that can be rationally explained and reliably applied. Ever since classical antiquity, science as a type of knowledge has been closely linked to philosophy. In the Westduring the early modern period the words “science” and “philosophy of nature” were sometimes used interchangeably,:p.3 and until the 19th century natural philosophy (which is today called “natural science“) was considered a branch ofphilosophy.
In modern usage however, “science” most often refers to a way of pursuing knowledge, not only the knowledge itself. It is also often restricted to those branches of study that seek to explain the phenomena of the material universe. In the 17th and 18th centuries scientists increasingly sought to formulate knowledge in terms of laws of nature. Over the course of the 19th century, the word “science” became increasingly associated with the scientific method itself, as a disciplined way to study the natural world, including physics,chemistry, geology and biology. It is in the 19th century also that the termscientist began to be applied to those who sought knowledge and understanding of nature. However, “science” has also continued to be used in a broad sense to denote reliable and teachable knowledge about a topic, as reflected in modern terms like library science or computer science. This is also reflected in the names of some areas of academic study such as social science and political science.
The Bible declares, “In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth.” Yet as far back as 350 BC, philosophers like Aristotle believed the universe had existed forever. The fifth-century theologian, St Augustine, stated that he believed “the world was made, not in time, but simultaneously with time.”
Atheistic cosmologist, Stephen Hawking, stated that “the motivation for believing in an eternal universe was the desire to avoid invoking divine intervention to create the universe and set it going. Conversely, those who believed the universe had a beginning, used it as an argument for the existence of God as the first cause—or prime mover—of the universe.”
In 1917, as Einstein was developing his theory of relativity, he was horrified that his theory would describe a universe that should either be expanding or collapsing. So he introduced a variable called the cosmological constant, which eliminated such a possibility and fitted the concept of a static universe, since a static universe would not have the need to have a beginning.
As Einstein intentionally fudged his equation, one of his contemporaries, a Belgium astronomer and mathematician (as well as Catholic priest), George LeMaitre, immediately pointed out to Einstein that the “fudge factor” he introduced had caused his equation to become unstable. By 1927, George LeMaitre believed that the Jewish word “bara” (for creation) is meant for creation out of nothingness (ex-nihilo), and he proposed that the universe started from an infinitely dense but small “Cosmic Egg” exploding at the moment of the creation.
In 1931, American astronomer Edwin Hubble used the then largest 100-inch telescope to measure the distances and motions of the galaxies. He surprisingly discovered that the universe is expanding. After verifying what Hubble had discovered, Einstein admitted that his addition of the cosmological constant was the biggest “blunder of his life.”
In 1945, America’s Ukrainian-born physicist George Gamow was able to follow the lead of LeMaitre in predicting the existence of Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation resulting from the extremely high temperature cosmic explosion. He was also able to give a full account of the presence of hydrogen and helium in the universe. These two contributions gave important theoretical support to the Big Bang theory. Yet this was not well received scientifically, and therefore took on the pejorative term “the Big Bang”— a term coined by Fred Hoyle, who, until his death in 2001, was an obstinate proponent of the much more widely supported rival theory of steady-state universe.
The atheistic philosopher Bertrand Russell openly declared: “There is no reason to suppose that the world had a beginning at all. The idea that things must have a beginning is really due to the poverty of our thoughts.” Mortimer Adler, the legal scholar and philosopher of Chicago University, in his book, How to Think About God, acknowledged that “So long as the universe had a beginning, we could suppose it had a creator.” In 1959, Scientific American polled America’s top scientists. Two-thirds responded that “there is no origin of the universe.”
The First Pair of Nobel Laureates Discovered the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation
In 1964 and 1965, Bell Labs’ radio astronomers, Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson, were using a large horn antenna to map signals from the Milky Way when they serendipitously discovered the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) radiation. This discovery offered strong evidence that the universe began with the Big Bang, which ushered in experimental cosmology.
In 1978, Penzias and Wilson were awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in honor of their findings. Arno Penzias said, “The best data we have are exactly what I would have predicted, had I had nothing to go on but the five books of Moses, the Psalms, the Bible as a whole.” He also stated, “Well, today’s dogma holds that matter is eternal. The dogma comes from the intuitive belief of people who don’t want to accept the observational evidence that the universe was created—despite the fact that the creation of the universe is supported by all the observable data astronomy has produced so far. As a result, the people who reject the data can arguably be described as having a ‘religious’ belief that matter must be eternal. These people regard themselves as objective scientists.”
The Second Pair of Nobel Laureates Measured the Ripples of Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) Radiation
In 1989, the USA launched the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) satellite, dedicated to measuring the CMB radiation of the universe that would help shape our understanding of the cosmos.
In 1992, the COBE research team announced that the satellite had discovered the predicted tiny ripples in the CMB radiation. The observations were “evidence for the birth of the universe.” Dr. George Smoot, the team’s leader, referred to these seeds for future galaxy super clusters as the “fingerprints from the Maker.” This also led Dr. Smoot to say, “If you’re religious, it’s like looking at God.” This discovery essentially silenced all the scientific critics of the Big Bang theory and helped change the course of future investigations into the origin of the universe. Stephen Hawking called this “the discovery of the century, if not of all time.”
In 2006, George Smoot and John Mather won the Nobel Prize in Physics for this discovery.
The Third Pair of Nobel Laureates Pointed Out the Existence of God Particle
On July 4, 2012, the European Organization for Nuclear Research, CERN, announced that they had captured the elusive “God Particle”— the particle that gives matter the mass that holds the physical fabric of the universe together. The search for the missing particle, dubbed as “the holy grail of physics,” was made possible with the 10 billion US dollar, 27-kilometer, Large Hadron Collider (LHC), which has finally proven—up to 99.999% certainty—that the God Particle (Higgs boson) actually exists.
Between 10–12 second and 10–6 second after the Big Bang, during Electroweak symmetry breaking and the quark epoch, as the strong nuclear force separates from the other two, particle interactions create large numbers of exotic particles, including W and Z bosons and the Higgs boson—which is believed to be the particle which gives mass to matter. This allows a universe made entirely out of Big Bang cosmic massless radiation to become a universe that has mass in its basic particles.
Hawking openly acknowledged that he lost a $100 bet that the “God Particle” wouldn’t be discovered.
Dr. Nathan Aviezer, an Orthodox Jew who is the former Chairman of the Physics Department of Bar- Ilan University, stated: “The story of the Big Bang resonates perfectly with the story of creation told in Genesis. Without addressing who or what caused it, the mechanics of the creation process in the Big Bang match the Genesis story perfectly. If I had to make up a theory to match the first passages in Genesis, the Big Bang theory would be it.
According to Genesis, the universe was created from a ball of energy and light that appeared suddenly from nothingness—exactly the same ball of energy and light described in the Big Bang theory. Throughout the centuries, creation ex nihilo was considered impossible, but today it is taken as scientific fact.”
Reuse online please credit to Challenger, 2015040 2015. CCMUSA.
From modern science, we have now realized that everything has to be “just right” for life to exist on Earth. Not only does our Earth need to be located in a narrow “habitable zone” of the Solar System, our Solar System also needs to be located in the “habitable zone” of our galaxy—the Milky Way. Heavy elements essential for life on Earth are insufficient if the Solar System is located too far from the center of our galaxy. The stellar environments are too hostile if we are located closer to the center of our Milky Way—a black hole.Our Sun supplies us with energies mostly in the forms of heat and light. However, the nuclear reactions of the Sun also simultaneously emit large amounts of radiations that can damage all biological cells and destroy genetic codes in the DNA. For the most part, these radiations are harmful to life. To protect life on Earth, all of the electromagnetic radiations—which are more energetic than ultraviolet light and x-rays—are absorbed by the Earth’s atmosphere.
The magnetic field of the Earth also deflects solar winds and low-energycharged particles away from the lower atmosphere. Near the Earth’s magnetic poles, the Sun is never high up in the sky; therefore, the magnetic field lines of the Earth are never directly parallel to the direction of the Sun. The Earth’s magnetic field is still effective in deflecting solar winds, so that all we see near the poles is the corona lights (polar lights) caused by solar winds from the upper atmosphere.
However, because of the limited strength of the Earth’s magnetic field, energetic charged particles (cosmic rays) can still penetrate to the Earth’s surface. On average, the Earth is typically hit by about one cosmic charged particle per square centimeter per second. Since we are accustomed to this level of radiation, we have never been too concerned. Some people have considered this a “safe level” of radiation—but strictly speaking, “no radiation is safe radiation.” For medical diagnostic purposes or for cancer treatment, there may be some benefit in using radiation. However, the guiding principle for using radiation has always been “As Low As Reasonably Achievable” (ALARA).
The Earth’s magnetic field also preserves the Earth’s atmosphere from being carried away by solar winds. Our neighboring planet, Mars, is lacking a magnetic field like Earth’s. It has lost most of its atmosphere because of the direct impact of solar winds. The atmospheric pressure on the surface of Mars is now only 0.6% of our Earth’s atmosphere. The surface of Mars is therefore neither protected from radiation nor from showers of meteorites. It is definitely not a habitable planet like our home—Earth!
Today, we know that the center of our Milky Way is a black hole. It is unimaginably hostile to life. Our Milky Way is a disk-shaped, spiraling galaxy, and our Solar System is located about one-half to two-thirds of the radius out from the center and near the main plane of our galaxy disk. Extremely violent radiation jets are constantly shooting out from the center black hole and are perpendicular to the spiral disk plane. These intense jets are therefore not aiming at the direction of our Solar System and our Earth. However, supernovas from our galaxy and from other nearby galaxies are constantly emitting high-energy particles and are shooting in all directions. In space, these radiations and particles can be very damaging to biological cells.
Just a few months ago—on September 12, 2013—NASA announced that when Voyager 1 was exiting the Heliosphere on August 25, 2012, it measured a sudden increase of plasma density of about 40 times. This plasma sphere—a “stagnation region”—forms a “Heliosheath” starting at around 113 AU. (One AU is one unit of the distance between the Earth and the Sun, or 150 million kilometers. It takes eight minutes for light to travel across one AU.) Voyager 1 data showed that the solar wind dropped to zero outside of this plasma sphere—Heliopause—about 121 AU away. Also, right outside of this region—outside of the inner heliospheric current sheet between the Sun and this sphere—the magnetic field intensity is doubled, and high-energy particles detected in the interstellar space are 100 times more intense.
The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) of NASA operated the Voyager 1 space probe. It lifted off from Cape Canaveral in Florida on September 5, 1997. After flying by Jupiter in 1979 and Saturn in 1980, it picked up more speed using the “gravity assist” of Jupiter and Saturn. Since then, it has been on an extended mission, speeding to the outskirts of our Solar System. Voyager 1 has no solar panels. An onboard 470 watt radioisotope thermoelectric generator with a halflife of 87.7 years powers it. Its largest feature is a 3.7-meter diameter high gain satellite antenna disk. It carries a large collection of scientific measuring equipment—including radiation detectors, particle detectors, magnetometers, spectrometers, a plasma wave system, etc. Today, after 37 years—and at a distance of more than 127 times the distance from Earth to the Sun—the intensity of sunlight there is 15,000 times weaker than here on Earth. Many of its electronics (1977 technologies) are still functional. It takes 16 hours for radio signals to travel from Voyager 1 back to Earth. The Voyager 1 probe has made history as the first man-made object to enter interstellar space. Nevertheless, Voyager 1 is still capable of communicating with the Earth station, and is making discoveries and sending back interesting data.
The latest new discovery from Voyager 1 is really eye-opening! It reveals the existence of this protective sphere that is 113 AU to 121 AU away from the Sun. It is actively formed and maintained constantly by solar winds. This protective sphere is essential to all life on Earth! All of the harmful influx of charged particles coming from all directions of interstellar space are first attenuated by 100 times before entering into the inner part of our Solar System. The radiation level we are now “accustomed” to is only the remaining one percent of the harmful cosmic radiation that penetrates this protective sphere. Some of this radiation is further diverted by the Earth’s own magnetic field—converted into lower energy particles and/or absorbed by the Earth’s atmosphere. We who live on Earth have been doubly protected from all kinds of harmful cosmic and space radiations, and this was unknown to us until the discovery from Voyager 1 last year.
What can I say! The more we learn from modern science and technology, the more we can appreciate that our biosphere has been wonderfully and thoughtfully constructed to support life on Earth. How amazing is the grace of our Creator God!
“The heavens declare the glory of God; the skies proclaim the work of his hands” (Psalm 19:1).
“For since the creation of the world, God’s invisible qualities—his eternal power and divine nature—have been clearly seen, being understood from what has been made, so that people are without excuse” (Romans 1:20).
Denny Lee, Ph.D. in Physics, has been a research scientist in medical imaging—holding 33 US Patents—and is still currently active in particle physics research. Quoted from Double Protection for All Who Live on Earth, Challenger, Oct-Dec 2014. CCMUSA, http://ccmusa.org/read/read.aspx?id=chg20140402
Other web link could be interested
6.) Voyager pass solar system On September 12, nasa announced that Voyager 1 had crossed into interstellar space.
1977-09-05 Spacecraft launched at 12:56:00 UTC As of 2013[update], the probe was moving with a relative velocity to the Sun of about 17 km/s The probe is expected to continue its mission until 2025, when it will be no longer supplied with enough power from its generators to operate any of its instruments.
Until recently, Voyager has basked in the (relatively) warm wind of particles flung outward by the sun. Now it is surrounded by cold gusts blown out by other stars.
No other object made by man has traveled in this region of space before, and it isn’t behaving the way scientists expected. nasa announced that Voyager crossed into this region of space on Aug. 25, 2012—it took them until now to be sure of what had happened.
Light is important for life & observation
The Solar System is .0032% or 1/31250 the size of the Milky Way. Light speed in 1 sec. 300,000,000m dist.
- Traveling at the speed of light you could cross the solar system from edge to edge (3.2 ly) in 3.2 years. It takes about 8.5 minutes for light to reach from Sun’s surface to the earth.
• It would take 100,000 years to cross the Milky Way at the speed of light.
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